A network consists of multiple computers connected using some type of interface, each having one or more
interface devices such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) and/or a serial device for PPP networking. Each
computer is supported by network software that provides the server or client functionality. The hardware used to
transmit data across the network is called the media. It may include copper cable, fiber optic, or wireless
transmission. The standard cabling used for the purposes of this document is 10Base-T category 5 ethernet cable.
This is twisted copper cabling which appears at the surface to look similar to TV coaxial cable. It is terminated on
each end by a connector that looks much like a phone connector. Its maximum segment length is 100 meters.
There are two main types of network categories which are:
l Server based
In a server based network, there are computers set up to be primary providers of services such as file service or
mail service. The computers providing the service are are called servers and the computers that request and use
the service are called client computers.
In a peer-to-peer network, various computers on the network can act both as clients and servers. For instance,
many Microsoft Windows based computers will allow file and print sharing. These computers can act both as a
client and a server and are also referred to as peers. Many networks are combination peer-to-peer and server
based networks. The network operating system uses a network data protocol to communicate on the network to
other computers. The network operating system supports the applications on that computer. A Network Operating
System (NOS) includes Windows NT, Novell Netware, Linux, Unix and others.
Three Network Topologies
The network topology describes the method used to do the physical wiring of the network. The main ones are
star, and ring.